What is Cryptocurrency and its types | Works | Tokens

By | January 4, 2022

What is Cryptocurrency and its types | Works | Tokens

What is Cryptocurrency?

Cryptocurrency is a new currency that works in a completely different way from the traditional currency we use every day. The most basic difference is that only the currency is visible, which means that there are no real coins or notes you can keep in your back pocket.

It is also extracted, or created, in a different way. Instead of being produced by a major bank or government, such as U.S. dollars, euros and other fiat currencies, new cryptocurrency units often enter the broadcast through a technological process involving the participation of volunteers from around the world using their computers.

That is why cryptocurrency is often described as “decentralized.” Cryptocurrencies are generally not regulated or operated by any organization in any single country. A whole network of volunteers from around the world is needed to secure and secure cryptocurrency transactions.

But it is not just the digital nature and how they are issued that make cryptocurrencies different from ordinary currencies; there is another difference:

  • Regulation

The global financial system has been based on various fiat currencies for centuries and many countries have a mature set of rules and best practices to regulate their use. Cryptocurrency, however, is a highly regulated market, and even if there are regulations it can vary in strength.

Speed ​​and cost

Sending and completing cross-border transactions using cryptocurrency is much faster than using a legitimate banking system. Instead of taking a few business days, transactions can take place within minutes, usually at a fraction of the cost, compared to using fiat money.


Fiat money has unlimited offers. That means governments and central banks are free to print new currency of their choice in times of financial crisis. Cryptocurrencies, however, usually have predictive offers that are determined by an algorithm.

Many cryptocurrencies have a code to limit supply (though some do not). For example, bitcoin – the world’s first and largest cryptocurrency with market capitalization – has a high supply of 21 million tokens released at a firm and predictable rate. That means that once the value of bitcoin distributed has reached 21 million, the law will stop releasing new coins for distribution.


Unlike transactions involving fiat currency, all completed crypto transactions are permanent and final. It is almost impossible to postpone a crypto transaction once it has been added to the book.

What puts ‘crypto’ in cryptocurrency?

The term “crypto” in cryptocurrency refers to a special encryption and encryption system – known as cryptography – which is used to protect all transactions sent between users. Cryptography plays a key role in allowing users to freely trade tokens and coins with each other without the need for a banking consultant to monitor the individual’s balance and ensure that the network remains secure.

It also solves the problem that used to make traders like banks more important – the issue of double spending: when one tries to use the same balance twice with two different organizations.

Cryptocurrencies use cryptography to encrypt sensitive information, including secret keys – long alphabetic units of letters and numbers – for crypto owners. Think of secret keys as passwords that determine the identity of cryptocurrencies.

Remember that cryptocurrencies cannot be stored without a blockchain. They are permanently based on the blockchain. So, when someone claims to be the owner of an X-character value, they are actually saying that their password may require an X-number of coins in the blockchain.

These secret keys are the ones that hold crypto in their wallets, which you must have guessed, which are special types of software or devices designed specifically for this purpose. In cases where a crypto owner loses access to his or her private key, the confidential money associated with such keys may be permanently lost.

With the help of a cryptographic technique, secret keys were pressed to create wallet addresses, which could be compared to bank account numbers. In fact, you need your secret key to sign up for digital transactions. This is like broadcasting to everyone on the network, “I make sure I send this X-value to this person.” In contrast, wallet addresses indicate a place of purchase.

Encryption is done in one way or another, making it difficult to get private keys to personal wallet addresses.

How does cryptocurrency work?

While cryptocurrencies themselves serve as a means of exchange or transaction, they all rely on a special type of public ledger technology called “blockchain” to record data and track all transactions across the network.

Blockchain is just what it sounds like – a series of visual blocks each containing a set of functions and other data. Once each block is added to the series, it becomes unchanged, meaning that the data stored inside it cannot be altered or deleted.

Because cryptocurrencies are managed by a network of voluntary donors known as “nodes” and not a single coordinator, a system must be in place that ensures that everyone participates faithfully when recording and adding new data to the blockchain ledger.

The nodes perform a variety of roles in the network, from maintaining a complete archive of all historical activity to verifying new archive data. By having a distributed group of people who keep their own copy of the ledger, blockchain technology has the following advantages over traditional finances where the main copy is managed by a single institution:

  • There is no single point of failure: If one node fails it has a zero impact on the blockchain block.
  • No single source of truth can easily be corrupted.
  • Nodes collectively manage the database and ensure that new entries are valid.

Just think of having a collection of computers that take on banking roles by constantly updating users’ balance sheets. In the case of distributed spreadsheets, however, the balance sheets are not stored on a single server. Instead, there are multiple copies of balance sheets distributed across every few computers, individual nodes, or computers connected to a network, acting as a separate server. Therefore, even if one of the computers is offline, it will not be as dangerous to find a single offline server-based website as would be the case with traditional banking systems.

This infrastructure design makes it possible for cryptocurrencies to avoid security breaches that often plague fiat. It is difficult to attack or exploit this system because attackers must gain control of more than 50% of the computers connected to the blockchain network. Depending on how big the network is, it can be very expensive to carry out a planned attack. If you compare the amount needed to attack established cryptocurrencies like bitcoin with what the attacker should gain at the end of the day, pursuing such an effort would not be financially viable.

Also, it is worth noting that the widespread nature of these digital assets establishes their own research-resistant attributes. Unlike the case of banks, which are controlled by governments, cryptocurrencies have their own data distributed worldwide. Therefore, when a government shuts down one or more of these computers in its vicinity, the network will continue to operate because there are probably thousands of other countries in one country that cannot be reached by a single government.

How is cryptocurrency trading guaranteed?

Remember that blockchains broadcast information when all transactions made on the crypto network are permanently recorded. Each commercial block is connected together in chronological order in a guaranteed manner.

Because it is not possible to set up a central authority or bank to manage blockchains, crypto transactions are verified by nodes (computers connected to the blockchain). So the question is: How do these networks ensure that operator nodes are willing to participate in the verification process?

The only way to ensure that there will always be people willing to invest their time and computers in the blockchain verification system is to present incentives to do so.

Through compensation, guarantors are encouraged to participate actively and honestly in the certification process in order to receive rewards in the form of newly developed (built-in) cryptocurrencies. This compensation plan sets out the rules governing the process of selecting guarantors, who would ensure the next set of activities.

It also ensures that the authenticity functions are in line with the overall network policy. Validator nodes found to be involved in actions that undermine the validity of the crypto network may be barred from participating in subsequent verification processes or penalized accordingly. These incentive infrastructure is also known as consensus agreements.

There is a wide range of protocols used in existing blockchain networks. The two most common are:

1. Proof of performance (PoW):

This promotional program is a comprehensive computer-based protocol that requires providers (known as miners) to compete using expensive tools to create a winning code that gives them the right to add new ones. block of transactions in blockchain.

Once they added a new blockchain transaction block, the miners discovered the newly developed cryptocurrencies known as “block rewards” as incentives. Any transaction fees associated with joining the new block are also provided to the successful miner. Crypto networks that rely on PoW methods include Bitcoin, Dogecoin and Litecoin.

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2. Proof of Hosting (PoS)

This is a less efficient alternative to PoW protocol. Here, node operators do not have to spend a lot of money on specialized mining equipment. All they have to do is insert (or lock) a certain amount of money into the blockchain to show their commitment to the well-being of the network.

The rule of thumb is to randomly select from a set of nodes that deposit their money and assign them different tasks. For their problems, the protocol rewards successful providers with newly created crypto tokens. Crypto networks using this program include Cardano, Ethereum 2.0 and Polkadot.

What are tokens?

Tokens are digital assets issued by applications separated by blockchains. These are similar applications to the ones you can get on your smartphone, but instead of being used by one company, they work independently. Think of it as a free Uber app where taxi drivers and customers can connect together without having to pay a middle-class company for a profit.

Because these applications rely on blockchains infrastructure, transactions involving tokens come with an additional amount resolved in the native blockchain cryptocurrency in question.

For example, if you send a token – say USDT – to the Ethereum blockchain, you will have to pay a transaction fee made to ETH, which is the traditional cryptocurrency Ethereum ecosystem.

What is the difference between cryptocurrency and digital currency?

Cryptocurrencies are a blockchain-based digital asset. They are vehicles to transfer value to internationally divided networks and applications.

Digital currencies are any type of currency in the digital form, be it cryptocurrencies or virtual currency supported by a bank.

How important are cryptocurrencies?

The value of cryptocurrency generally depends on the use of the blockchain under it – although there have been many cases where the hype of social media and other high-profile factors have contributed to price increases.

The cryptocurrencies for blockchains that are considered a variety of resources are often more valuable than those that do not offer much. It all boils down, however, to the need for the coin associated with its provision and whether the buyer is willing to pay more than the amount the seller received for the coin in the first place.

Significantly, cryptocurrencies tend to favor the deregulation system, where the number of new currencies introduced in the market is predictable and decreases gradually over time.

For most cryptocurrencies, another important factor is the total amount of coins that can ever be fixed. For example, there will be only 21 million bitcoins created, over 18 million already distributed.

This fiscal-based system is in stark contrast to what we have in traditional finance, where governments are licensed to print an infinite number of fiat notes and unknowingly reduce their value.

Types of cryptocurrencies

Bitcoin was the first of many cryptocurrencies available today. Following its launch in 2009, developers began developing other types of cryptocurrencies based on technology that empowers the Bitcoin network.

In many cases, cryptocurrencies were designed to improve the standards set by Bitcoin. That is why some cryptocurrencies that come after the combined bitcoin are called “altcoins” from the phrase “alternative to bitcoin.” Outstanding examples are:

  • Ethereum
  • Litecoin
  • Cardano
  • XRP
  • Spots
  • EOS
  • Solana
  • Bitcoin currency

What is the use of cryptocurrency?

Initially, cryptocurrency was pushed into other fiat currencies based on the fact that it is portable, resistant to research, globally available and affordable ways to conduct cross-border transactions. However, with the exception of digital assets embedded in fiat currencies, the number of cryptocurrencies has not been able to double the level of stability required for effective trading.

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